Oleh : Dr. H. Fadlil Munawwar Manshur, M.S.

This paper discusses the theory advanced by Bakhtin about dialogism and methodological concepts. This theory to formulate the concept of human existence on the other, which is based on the idea that humans judge him from the viewpoint of others. Humans understand the moments of consciousness and take it into account through the eyes of others. According to this theory, the essence of human life is a dialogue. The Method of heteroglossia talks about signs in the universe of individuals because of the word "heteros" means "other" or different, while "glossia" means the tongue or language. In this method mentioned that people are saying needs to be heard, and the author also has the same rights that words need to be heard. A word is born from dialogue to address the problems of life. On the other hand, Bakhtin sees carnival method has spawned a new literary genre, the polyphonic novel. The polyphonic novel is a novel that is characterized by a plurality of voice or consciousness, and the voices or the overall awareness dialogical. Polyphonic essentially a "new theory of authorial viewpoint". Polyphonic appear in fiction when the position of the author freely allowed to interact with the characters. The characters in the novel are freely polyphonic appear to argue with each other and even with the author.

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Jangan Pernah Berbakhil, Saudaraku!

Rasulullah Saw. Bersabda :Perumpamaan Orang Yang Pemurah Dan Orang Yang Bersedekah Seperti Seorang Lelaki Yang Memakai Dua Helai Jubah Atau Dua Helai Baju Besi Dari Dadanya Hingga Keatas. Apabila Orang Yang Berbelanja (Dalam Riwayat Lain: Apabila Orang Yang Bersedekah) Ingin Memberi Sedekah, Maka Baju Itu Longgar Buatnya; Dan Apabila Orang Bakhil Ingin Bersedekah, Maka Baju Itu Menjadi Rimas Dan Panas Sehingga Menutupi Jari-jarinya Serta Menghapus Jejaknya. Abu Hurairah Berkata : Orang Yang Bakhil Ingin Melonggarkan Pakaiannya Tetapi Dia Tidak Mampu Melonggarkannya.